In this post, I’m going to go over two tools for inspecting the socket states (netstat and ss), and why to choose one over the other (spoiler: you can really choose either). This is not going to be a 12 ways to inspect socket states article, there are lots of those.

What is a socket?

A socket is a Linux file descriptor for communicating with the network. In Linux, they say everything is a file. In this case, you can treat a socket like a file that writes to the network instead of writing to a disk. Sockets come in different flavors for TCP vs. UDP. For more on sockets, checkout these links:

Why would I care about sockets?

Sockets can be in a bunch of different states (listed in this snippet of ss) which can be useful to answer questions like:

  • Is my server process actually listening on the port I think it is?
  • Is it listening on the loopback interface (, or could someone on my network connect to it (* or (This can be bad if you’re developing something and running a database that anyone in the coffee shop can make requests to)
  • What processes are listening on what ports in general?

These questions pertain to sockets that are listening on a host, but there are also various connected states a socket can be in. High Performance Browser Networking’s TCP overview if great for some explanation of the other states (or again TLPI is excellent)

How do I inspect the state of sockets on my machine?

The two tools I’ll cover are the command line tools netstat and ss. I’ll start with where they get their information.


The Procfs is a file system that Linux exposes that is like a peek into kernel memory. It lives in /proc and it exposes information about TCP and UDP sockets at /proc/net/tcp and /proc/net/udp. If I cat either of those I’ll get some inscrutable output.

The other source of information is called the netlink protocol. In this case you open a socket (a SOCK_RAW with AF_NETLINK as seen here). I can then send requests on that socket for information about other sockets (pretty meta). I have a lot to learn still about netlink, but here are some things I found:

  • libnldocumentation which is a library for interacting with netlink sockets.
  • RFC 3594 – Linux Netlink as an IP Services Protocol

Netstat vs. ss

netstat gets its information from /proc/net directly. It parses the file and prints out information based on it.

ss was written more recently to use the netlink API (it will fall back to proc/net if netlink is unavailable). The information in both systems is essentially the same (from what I’ve seen), but here are some arguments for why to use ss

  • It’s faster (I just read that a lot, I don’t find netstat to be noticeably slower)
  • Netlink exposes more TCP states (again I mostly look for LISTEN so that’s not a huge selling point)
  • It has better default argument

None of these are a huge homerun, which is why I expect a lot of people still use netstat. It’s also likely that netstat is installed more places. For instance my Macbook has netstat but not ss.

The default arguments is a little more compelling. netstat by default will try to resolve IP addresses through DNS which really slows it down. It also opens a bunch of new UDP sockets, which might clutter the picture if you’re investigating something. netstat -n stops this behavior, but ss has that on by default (you can use ss -r if you do want the resolution).

One other nice thing about ss is that its source code is much nicer to read!

Open Questions

Here are some things I am still wondering

  • What are the states that netlink supports that netstat won’t show? Are they states I actually care about?
  • Where does lsof -i fit in with all of this? Why would I choose that over ss?
  • What other users are there for netlink?
  • Can I use netlink to poll for any new UDP connection? (I’ve been wanting to do this to figure out what process is sending UDP packets to a particular IP address, which is easy with TCP but hard with UDP)